Showing blog posts from January 2015

Monday, 19 January 2015 22:55:00 (UTC/GMT)

Chinese MITM attack on outlook.com

An illustration from supplement to 'Le Petit Journal', 16th January 1898.

We were contacted by GreatFire.org earlier today regarding a new Chinese man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. This time the perpetrators decrypted traffic between Chinese users and Microsoft's IMAP mail server for outlook.com. As evidence GreatFire.org provided us with a packet capture file, which we have analyzed.

Our conclusion is that this was a real attack on Microsoft's email service. Additionally, the attack is very similar to previous nationwide Chinese attacks on SSL encrypted traffic, such as the attack on Google a few months ago. Details such as email address, email password, email contents, email attachments and contacts may have been compromised in this attack. We do not know the scale of the attack, it could be anything from a fairly targeted attack to a nation wide attack in China. What we do know is that there are several users who have been subjected to the MITM attack and posted screenshots online.

Technical Analysis

Attacked IP Address:157.56.195.250 (imap-mail.outlook.com)
Attacked Protocol:SSL encryption of IMAPS (TCP 993)
Date of Attack:2015-01-18
PCAP File:https://www.cloudshark.org/captures/8bf76336e67d

In our technical analysis we first extracted the x509 certificates from the SSL traffic by loading the capture file into NetworkMinerCLI. We then parsed the extracted certificates with OpenSSL.

$ mono /opt/NetworkMinerProfessional_1-6-1/NetworkMinerCLI.exe -r Outlook_MITM_2015-01-18.pcapng
Closing file handles...
84 frames parsed in 0.888754 seconds.
$ ls AssembledFiles/157.56.195.250/TLS_Cert\ -\ TCP\ 993/*.cer
AssembledFiles/157.56.195.250/TLS_Cert - TCP 993/hotmail.com[1].cer
AssembledFiles/157.56.195.250/TLS_Cert - TCP 993/hotmail.com[2].cer
AssembledFiles/157.56.195.250/TLS_Cert - TCP 993/hotmail.com.cer
$ openssl x509 -inform DER -in AssembledFiles/157.56.195.250/TLS_Cert\ -\ TCP\ 993/hotmail.com.cer -noout -issuer -subject -startdate -fingerprint
issuer= /CN=*.hotmail.com
subject= /CN=*.hotmail.com
notBefore=Jan 15 16:00:00 2015 GMT
SHA1 Fingerprint=75:F4:11:59:5F:E9:A2:1A:17:A4:96:7C:7B:66:6E:51:52:79:1A:32

When looking at the timestamps in the capture file we noticed that the SSL server's reply to the 'Client Hello' was very slow; response times varied between 14 and 20 seconds. Under normal circumstances the 'Server Hello' arrives within 0.3 seconds after the 'Client Hello' has been sent.

$ tshark -nr ./Outlook_MITM_2015-01-18.pcapng -Y 'ssl.handshake.type lt 3'
8 9.023876000 10.0.2.15 -> 157.56.195.250 SSL 265 Client Hello
17 26.885504000 157.56.195.250 -> 10.0.2.15 TLSv1 576 Server Hello, Certificate, Server Hello Done
45 101.747755000 10.0.2.15 -> 157.56.195.250 SSL 265 Client Hello
49 116.258483000 157.56.195.250 -> 10.0.2.15 TLSv1 576 Server Hello, Certificate, Server Hello Done
63 116.338420000 10.0.2.15 -> 157.56.195.250 SSL 265 Client Hello
65 136.119127000 157.56.195.250 -> 10.0.2.15 TLSv1 576 Server Hello, Certificate, Server Hello Done
[...]

This is slow SSL response is consistent with previous SSL MITM attacks conducted with support of the Great Firewall of China (GFW).

For more details on this attack, please see the Reuters story "After Gmail blocked in China, Microsoft's Outlook hacked" and GreatFire's own blog post "Outlook grim - Chinese authorities attack Microsoft".

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Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Monday, 19 January 2015 22:55:00 (UTC/GMT)

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Recommended Books

» The Practice of Network Security Monitoring, Richard Bejtlich (2013)

» Applied Network Security Monitoring, Chris Sanders and Jason Smith (2013)

» Network Forensics, Sherri Davidoff and Jonathan Ham (2012)

» The Tao of Network Security Monitoring, Richard Bejtlich (2004)

» Practical Packet Analysis, Chris Sanders (2011)

» Windows Forensic Analysis, Harlan Carvey (2009)

» TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1, Kevin Fall and Richard Stevens (2011)

» Industrial Network Security, Eric D. Knapp and Joel Langill (2014)